A Route53 Record Set in AWS is a collection of resource records that define a DNS record. It consists of a name and type, and one or more values. The record set resource type allows you to configure settings such as the weight, latency, geo routing, health checks for the specified domain name. This helps to route users to the correct endpoint based on their location or other criteria. Route53 also provides an alias feature which allows you to map hostnames in your domain to other AWS resources such as ELB load balancers or S3 buckets. This makes it easy for customers to access your applications without having to remember long URLs or IP addresses.